In the beginning, film and television were considered natural rivals, competing for the audience's leisure time. Television only became a mass phenomenon in Spain during the 1960s, and it took longer than in the rest of Europe to be a cause of concern for film producers. At that time, and until 1982, there was only one company, Televisión Española, which was under the direct authority of the government. There was also one channel, and its broadcasting schedules were very restricted. Even when an alternative channel was introduced, it took until the early 1970s before the choice was available to a majority of Spanish audiences. Spanish TV produced some dramatic programs (largely filmed plays), but provided no real alternative to cinema. In the late 1960s, television started to show films regularly. The competition this represented was counterbalanced by the fees charged in order to broadcast films. At the same time (and maybe for this reason), the number of cinemas in Spain remained high until the 1980s.
   But by the mid-1970s, there were obvious signs of a serious crisis in the film industry. In reality, the crisis had always been there, but in this case it was combined with more alternatives and with politically troubled times. The disappearance of censorship brought deep changes in the structure of the film industry and a number of measures to protect Spanish films. When Pilar Miró became General Director for Cinema, she introduced a series of measures that, on the one hand, would encourage more quality. On the other, she tried to transform the (by then) perceived rivalry between television and the film industry into a collaboration. But in the 1960s, it seemed as if cinema was "giving" and television was "receiving," as funding was channeled into a different direction. Television started to produce series based on literary adaptations that gave employment to many professionals in the film industry.
   Also, throughout the 1980s, legislation allowed for a proliferation of television companies. As the decade progressed, it became clear that television was increasingly funding a great share of the films projected in cinemas: television companies put money into film projects to ensure broadcast rights.
   In recent times, the film industry has become totally reliant on television funding: very few films with a substantial budget do not seek the assistance of Tele 5, Antena 3, TV3, or media conglomerates like PRISA. Although not necessarily a bad thing, it remains to be seen how long these companies will continue to fund such an unreliable, expensive business when they can produce their own popular products much more cheaply and easily.
   On a more positive note, the boom in television drama and sitcoms has in recent years provided many opportunities for actors and other professionals who can strengthen their training with secure work. Actors like Paz Vega, Javier Cámara, Carmen Machi, and Fernando Tejero cemented their reputations in televisión. Others have traveled the path in the opposite direction: Imanol Arias and Antonio Resines have developed solid television careers when film parts were scarce.
   Historical Dictionary of Spanish Cinema by Alberto Mira

Guide to cinema. . 2011.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • TÉLÉVISION — La télévision est devenue un fait social de première importance puisque, dans les pays les plus développés, il y avait, en 1990, environ dix récepteurs de télévision pour vingt cinq habitants. Grâce à l’électronique, certains spectacles,… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Television — Télévision « Télé » et « TV » redirigent ici. Pour les autres significations, voir Télé (homonymie) et TV (homonymie). Pour les articles homonymes, voir télévi …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Television — Основная информация Жанры …   Википедия

  • television — UK US /ˈtelɪvɪʒən/ noun [U] (also TV) ► COMMUNICATIONS a system of broadcasting images and sound using electrical signals, and the programmes that are shown: on (the) television »Consumer programmes on the television have enjoyed a rise in… …   Financial and business terms

  • televisión — sustantivo femenino 1. Área: tecnología Uso/registro: coloquial. Sistema de transmisión de imágenes y sonidos a distancia por medio de ondas hertzianas: programa de televisión, presentador de televisión, estudios de televisión. Veo poca… …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • television — [tel′ə vizh΄ən] n. [ TELE + VISION] 1. the practice or science of transmitting scenes or views by radio or, sometimes, by wire: the television transmitter, by means of a camera tube, such as an image orthicon or vidicon, converts light rays into… …   English World dictionary

  • Television — Sf Fernsehen (meist TV abgekürzt) erw. fach. (20. Jh.) Neoklassische Bildung. Entlehnt aus ne. television; dieses ist eine Hybridbildung aus gr. tẽle fern und l. visio Sicht .    Ebenso nndl. televisie, ne. television, nfrz. télévision, nschw.… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • television — (n.) 1907, the action of seeing by means of Hertzian waves or otherwise, what is existing or happening at a place concealed or distant from the observer s eyes [OED]; in theoretical discussions about sending images by radio transmission, formed… …   Etymology dictionary

  • television — ► NOUN 1) a system for converting visual images (with sound) into electrical signals, transmitting them by radio or other means, and displaying them electronically on a screen. 2) the activity, profession, or medium of broadcasting on television …   English terms dictionary

  • Television — actorvist adrenaline television appointment television backstory baked potato barking head begathon …   New words

  • Television —    Television (TV) was only just developing at the end of the 1930s, with only one station in New York City and about 1,000 sets in operation by 1939. By 1941, there were 13 stations and the 521 lines of signal had become standard, but World War… …   Historical Dictionary of the Roosevelt–Truman Era

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”